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Shock absorber (equipment)
Latest company news about Shock absorber (equipment)

   The shock absorber is used to restrain the shock when the spring rebounds after the shock absorption and the impact from the road. Widely used in automobile, in order to accelerate the vibration attenuation of frame and body, and improve the ride comfort of automobile. Although the shock absorption spring can filter the vibration of the road when passing through the uneven road, the spring itself will have reciprocating motion, and the shock absorber is used to restrain the spring jump. 

Chinese name: shock absorber.                                                      Working principle: elastic element vibrates under impact Foreign name: Fabsorber                                                                                          Application: accelerate the vibration attenuation of frame and body

Function: to restrain the shock when the spring rebounds after the shock absorption

Development Prospect: broad production prospect and huge appreciation space

Catalog
1. working principle
2. product use
3. product classification
kind of Material angle division
kind of Structure angle division
4. matching skills
5. oil leakage
6. troubleshooting
kind of Testing
kind of repair
7. maintenance methods
8. development prospect

How it works edit
   In the suspension system, the shock absorber is installed in parallel with the elastic element to improve the ride comfort of the vehicle. In order to reduce the vibration, the shock absorber is mostly hydraulic shock absorber. Its working principle is that when the vibration between the frame (or body) and the axle causes relative motion, the piston in the shock absorber moves up and down, and the shock absorber The oil in the cavity flows from one cavity to another through different pores repeatedly. At this time, the friction between the hole wall and the oil and the internal friction between the oil molecules form a damping force on the vibration, so that the vehicle vibration energy is converted into the oil thermal energy, which is absorbed and distributed to the atmosphere by the shock absorber. When the cross-section and other factors of the oil channel are constant, the damping force increases or decreases with the relative velocity between the frame and the axle (or wheel), and is related to the oil viscosity.
    Shock absorbers and elastic components bear the task of cushioning and shock absorption. If the damping force is too large, the suspension elasticity will be damaged, and even the connection parts of shock absorbers will be damaged. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the contradiction between elastic elements and shock absorbers.
(1) In the compression stroke (bridge and frame are close to each other), the damping force of the shock absorber is small, so as to give full play to the elastic role of the elastic elements and mitigate the impact. At this time, elastic elements play a major role.
(2) In the extension stroke of suspension (the axle and frame are far away from each other), the damping force of shock absorber should be large and shock absorption should be rapid.
(3) When the relative speed between the axle (or wheel) and the axle is too large, the shock absorber is required to automatically increase the fluid flow, so that the damping force is always kept within a certain limit, so as to avoid bearing too much impact load.
The tube shock absorber is widely used in automobile suspension system, and it can play the role of shock absorption in compression and extension stroke. It is called double acting shock absorber. There are also new shock absorbers, including inflatable shock absorber and resistance adjustable shock absorber.

   Description of working principle of double acting cylinder shock absorber: during compression stroke, it refers to that when the car wheel moves close to the body, the shock absorber is compressed, and the piston in the shock absorber moves downward. The volume of the lower chamber of the piston decreases, the oil pressure increases, and the oil flows through the flow valve to the chamber (upper chamber) above the piston. The upper chamber is occupied by the piston rod, so the increased volume of the upper chamber is smaller than the reduced volume of the lower chamber, and part of the oil then pushes the compression valve and flows back to the storage cylinder. The oil saving of these valves forms the damping force of the compressed motion of the suspension. When the shock absorber stretches, the wheels are away from the body, and the shock absorber is stretched. The piston of the shock absorber now moves up. When the oil pressure in the upper chamber of the piston increases, the flow valve closes, and the oil in the upper chamber pushes the expansion valve to flow into the lower chamber. Due to the existence of the piston rod, the oil flowing from the upper chamber is not enough to fill the increased volume of the lower chamber, which mainly causes a vacuum degree in the lower chamber. At this time, the oil in the oil reservoir pushes the compensation valve 7 to flow into the lower chamber for replenishment. Because of the throttling effect of these valves, the suspension will play a damping role in stretching motion.
  Because the stiffness and pretension of the spring of the extension valve are larger than that of the compression valve, under the same pressure, the total channel load area of the extension valve and the corresponding constant clearance is smaller than that of the compression valve and the corresponding constant clearance. This makes the damping force produced by the extension stroke of the shock absorber larger than that of the compression stroke, so as to meet the requirements of rapid shock absorption. 

Product usage edit
     In order to accelerate the attenuation of frame and body vibration, so as to improve the ride comfort of the car,
Shock absorber
Shock absorber
    The suspension system of most cars is equipped with shock absorbers. 
    The shock absorption system of automobile is composed of spring and shock absorber. Shock absorbers are not used to support the weight of the body, but to suppress the shock of the spring when it rebounds and absorb the energy of the road impact. The spring plays a role of mitigating the impact, changing the "large energy one-time impact" into "small energy multiple impact", and the shock absorber is gradually reducing the "small energy multiple impact". If you have ever driven a car with a broken shock absorber, you can experience the bouncing of the car after every pothole and fluctuation, and the shock absorber is used to suppress this bouncing. Without shock absorbers, it will not be able to control the rebound of the spring. When the car encounters the rough road, it will have a serious bounce. When it passes the corner, it will also cause the loss of the tire's grip and tracking due to the vibration of the spring up and down.

Product classification edit
Material angle division
   From the point of view of producing damping materials, there are mainly two kinds of shock absorbers: hydraulic and pneumatic, and a variable damping shock absorber.
  Hydraulic type
  Hydraulic shock absorber is widely used in automobile suspension system. The principle is that when the frame and axle do reciprocating relative motion and the piston moves in the cylinder barrel of the shock absorber, the oil in the shock absorber shell flows into another inner chamber through some narrow pores repeatedly. At this time, the friction between the liquid and the inner wall and the internal friction of the liquid molecules will form the damping force to the vibration.
Inflatable
  Inflatable shock absorber is a new type of shock absorber developed since 1960s. The structure is characterized in that a floating piston is arranged at the lower part of the cylinder barrel, and a sealed air chamber formed by the floating piston and one end of the cylinder barrel is filled with high-pressure nitrogen. The floating piston is equipped with a large section O-ring, which completely separates the oil and gas. The working piston is equipped with a compression valve and an extension valve which can change the cross-sectional area of the channel according to the movement speed. When the wheel jumps up and down, the working piston of the shock absorber moves back and forth in the oil, which causes the oil pressure difference between the upper chamber and the lower chamber of the working piston, and the pressure oil pushes the compression valve and the extension valve to flow back and forth. As the valve has a large damping force on the pressure oil, the vibration is attenuated.

    Structure angle division
   The structure of the shock absorber is that the piston rod with a piston is inserted into the cylinder, and the cylinder is filled with oil. There are orifices on the piston so that the oil in the two parts separated by the piston can supplement each other. Damping is produced when the viscous oil passes through the orifice. The smaller the orifice, the greater the damping force, the greater the viscosity of the oil and the greater the damping force. If the size of the orifice is constant, the shock absorption will be affected by the excessive damping when the shock absorber is working fast. Therefore, a disc-shaped leaf spring valve is arranged at the outlet of the throttle hole. When the pressure increases, the valve is jacked open, the opening of the throttle hole increases, and the damping decreases. Because the piston moves in two directions, there are leaf spring valves on both sides of the piston, which are called compression valve and extension valve respectively.
    Air spring damping system
    Air spring damping system
    According to its structure, shock absorbers are divided into two types: single cylinder and double cylinder. It can be further divided into: 1. Single cylinder gas damper; 2. Double cylinder oil damper; 3. Double cylinder oil gas damper.

Double cylinder
   The shock absorber has two inner and outer cylinders. The piston moves in the inner cylinder. As the piston rod enters and withdraws, the volume of oil in the inner cylinder increases and contracts accordingly. Therefore, the oil balance in the inner cylinder should be maintained by exchanging with the outer cylinder. Therefore, there should be four valves in the double cylinder shock absorber, that is, in addition to the two throttle valves on the piston mentioned above, there are also flow valves and compensation valves installed between the inner and outer cylinders to complete the exchange effect. 
Single cylinder
   Compared with the double cylinder shock absorber, the single cylinder shock absorber has a simple structure and a set of valve system is reduced. It's in the cylinder.
Barrel shock absorber
Barrel shock absorber
   The lower part of the floating piston is equipped with a floating piston (the so-called floating means that there is no piston rod to control its movement). A closed air chamber is formed under the floating piston, which is filled with high-pressure nitrogen. The above mentioned changes in the liquid level due to the liquid in and out of the piston rod are automatically adapted by the floating of the floating piston. In addition to the two shock absorbers mentioned above, there are also shock absorbers with adjustable resistance. It can be operated externally to change the size of the orifice. Recently, the electronic controlled shock absorber is used as the standard equipment in the automobile. The driving state is detected by the sensor, and the optimal damping force is calculated by the computer, which makes the damping force adjustment mechanism on the shock absorber work automatically.
Specific description of the barrel shock absorber
    The shock absorber is widely used in automobile suspension system, and it can play the role of shock absorption in compression and extension travel, so it is also called two-way acting shock absorber.

    The components include: 1. Piston rod; 2. Working cylinder barrel; 3. Piston; 4. Extension valve; 5. Oil storage cylinder barrel; 6. Compression valve; 7. Compensation valve; 8 flow valve; 9. Guide seat; 10. Dust cover; 11. Oil seal.
When the wheels of the car move close to the body and the shock absorber is compressed, the piston in the shock absorber will
Schematic diagram of cylinder shock absorber
Schematic diagram of cylinder shock absorber
   Move down. The volume of the lower chamber of the piston decreases, the oil pressure increases, and the oil flows through the flow valve to the chamber (upper chamber) above the piston. The upper chamber is occupied by the piston rod, so the increased volume of the upper chamber is smaller than the reduced volume of the lower chamber, and part of the oil then pushes the compression valve and flows back to the storage cylinder. The oil saving of these valves forms the damping force of the compressed motion of the suspension. When the shock absorber is far away from the body at the wheel and the shock absorber is stretched, the piston of the shock absorber moves upward. When the oil pressure in the upper chamber of the piston increases, the flow valve closes, and the oil in the upper chamber pushes the expansion valve to flow into the lower chamber. Because of the existence of the piston rod, the oil flowing from the upper chamber is not enough to fill the increased volume of the lower chamber, which mainly causes a vacuum degree in the lower chamber. At this time, the oil in the oil reservoir pushes the compensation valve open and flows into the lower chamber for supplement. Because of the throttling effect of these valves, they play a damping role in the extension movement of the suspension.
Matching skills editor
1、 Check whether the product provides 2-3 inch rise requirements. Some products only provide 2 inch rise. It is easy to pull to the limit and cause damage in off-road after barely using 3 inch rise.
2、 Whether the diameter of the damper's central extension rod can reach more than 16 mm is a basic index of its strength.
3、 Whether the upper and lower connecting sleeves of shock absorbers are high-strength polyurethane sleeves is also an important basis for  ensuring long-term high-strength use, because it is difficult for ordinary rubber to be used for a long time under high-strength conditions.
Shock absorbers are mainly used to suppress the shock of spring rebound and the impact from the road. Although the shock absorption spring can filter the vibration of the road when passing through the uneven road, the spring itself will have reciprocating motion, and the shock absorber is used to restrain the spring jump. If the shock absorber is too soft, the body will jump up and down, and if the shock absorber is too hard, it will bring too much resistance and prevent the spring from working normally. Shi Xiaohui said that in the process of refitting the suspension system, the hard shock absorber should be matched with the hard spring, and the hardness of the spring is closely related to the vehicle weight, so the heavier vehicles generally use the harder shock absorber. In order to design the best combination of shock absorber and spring, it is necessary to try again and again. Professional refit shop can find out the best match for car owners.

Oil leakage fault edit
If the automobile shock absorber leaks oil, it is a very dangerous thing for the shock absorber. Then, once oil leakage is found, timely remedial measures shall be taken. The key inspection items are oil seal gasket, seal gasket rupture and damage, oil cylinder head, and check whether the nuts of these parts are loose.
  If oil leakage is found, first tighten the nut of the oil cylinder head. If the shock absorber still leaks oil, the oil seal and the sealing washer may be damaged and invalid, and the new seal should be replaced. If the oil leakage still cannot be eliminated, pull out the damping rod. If you feel that there is a card or the weight is different, further check whether the clearance between the piston and the cylinder barrel is too large,    whether the piston rod of the shock absorber is bent, and whether the surface of the piston rod and the cylinder barrel are scratched or pulled.
If there is no oil leakage in the shock absorber, check whether the connecting pin, connecting rod, connecting hole, rubber bush, etc. of the shock absorber are damaged, desoldered, cracked or fallen off. If the above inspection is normal, the vibration damper shall be further       disassembled to check whether the fit clearance between the piston and the cylinder is too large, whether the cylinder is strained, whether the valve seal is good, whether the valve disc and the valve seat fit tightly, and whether the extension spring of the vibration damper is too soft or broken. According to the situation, the method of grinding or replacement shall be adopted for repair.
  In addition, the vibration damper will make noise in actual use, which is mainly caused by the collision between the vibration damper and the leaf spring, frame or shaft, the damage or fall off of the rubber pad, the deformation of the dust-proof cylinder of the vibration damper, and the lack of oil, etc., the causes shall be found out and repaired.
   After the shock absorber is inspected and repaired, the working performance test shall be carried out on a special test bench. When the resistance frequency is 100 ± 1mm, the resistance of its extension stroke and compression stroke shall meet the requirements. The maximum resistance is 392 ~ 588n; the maximum resistance is 2450 ~ 3038n for the stretching stroke and 490 ~ 686n for the compression stroke of Dongfeng truck. If there is no test condition, we can also adopt an empirical method, that is, use an iron bar to penetrate into the lower ring of the shock absorber, step on both ends with both feet, hold the upper ring with both hands and pull it back and forth for 2-4 times. When pulling upward, the resistance is very large, and when pressing downward, it is not laborious, and the resistance of stretching is recovered compared with that before repair, and there is no sense of space, which indicates that the shock absorber is basically normal.

Troubleshooting edit
Testing
In order to reduce the vibration between the frame and the body rapidly and improve the ride comfort of the car, the suspension system of the car is generally equipped with shock absorbers, which are widely used in the car.
Shock absorber test includes shock absorber performance test, shock absorber durability test and shock absorber double excitation test
Try. All kinds of shock absorbers are tested by indicator test, friction test and temperature characteristic test.
1、 Make the car stop after driving 10km on the road with poor road conditions, touch the shock absorber shell by hand, if it is not hot enough, it means that there is no resistance inside the shock absorber and the shock absorber does not work. At this time, the proper lubricating oil can be added and the test can be carried out again. If the shell is heated, the oil in the shock absorber is insufficient and sufficient oil should be added; otherwise, the shock absorber is invalid.
2、 Press down the bumper firmly, then release it. If the car has 2-3 jumps, the shock absorber works well.
3、 When the car is braking slowly and urgently, if the vibration of the car is severe, it means that there is a problem with the shock absorber.
4、 Remove the shock absorber to make it stand upright, clamp the lower connecting ring on the vise, pull and press the shock absorber for several times, at this time, there should be stable resistance, and the resistance to pull up (recover) should be greater than the resistance to press down. If the resistance is not stable or no resistance, it may be the lack of oil inside the shock absorber or the damage of valve parts, repair or replace the parts.

 

 

 

repair
   After the problem or failure of the shock absorber is determined, check whether the shock absorber leaks oil or has traces of old oil leakage.
The oil seal washer and seal washer are broken and damaged, and the nut of the oil cylinder head is loose. It is possible that the oil seal and sealing washer are damaged and invalid, so the new seal should be replaced. If the oil leakage still cannot be eliminated, the shock absorber shall be pulled out. If the shock absorber is jammed or the weight is different, further check whether the clearance between the piston and the cylinder barrel is too large, whether the piston rod of the shock absorber is bent, and whether the surface of the piston rod and the cylinder barrel are scratched or pulled.
  If the shock absorber is free of oil leakage, check the connecting pin, connecting rod and connection of the shock absorber
  Whether there is any damage, desoldering, fracture or falling off of holes, rubber bushes, etc. If the above inspection is normal, the shock absorber shall be further disassembled to check whether the fit clearance between the piston and the cylinder is too large, whether the cylinder is strained, whether the valve seal is good, whether the valve disc and the valve seat fit tightly, and whether the extension spring of the shock absorber is too soft or broken. According to the situation, the method of grinding or replacement shall be adopted for repair.
  In addition, the vibration damper will produce noise in actual use, which is mainly caused by the collision between the vibration damper and leaf spring, frame or shaft, damage or falling off of the rubber pad, deformation of the dust-proof cylinder of the vibration damper, insufficient oil, etc. the cause shall be found out and repaired.
   After inspection and repair, the shock absorber shall be tested on a special test bench. When the resistance frequency is 100 ± 1mm, the resistance of its extension stroke and compression stroke shall meet the requirements. For example, the maximum resistance of the stretching stroke of Jiefang cal091 is 2156-2646n, the maximum resistance of the compression stroke is 392-588n; the maximum resistance of the stretching stroke of Dongfeng car is 2450-3038n, and the maximum resistance of the compression stroke is 490-686n.
If there is no test condition, we can also adopt an empirical method, that is to use an iron bar to penetrate into the lower ring of the shock absorber, which indicates that the shock absorber is basically normal.

Maintenance method edit
   In order to reduce the vibration between the frame and the body rapidly and improve the ride comfort of the car, the suspension system of the car is generally equipped with shock absorbers, which are widely used in the car.
Shock absorbers are vulnerable parts in the process of automobile use. The working quality of shock absorbers will directly affect the stability of automobile driving and the service life of other parts. Therefore, we should make the shock absorbers in good working condition. The following methods can be used to check whether the shock absorber works well.
1. Stop the vehicle after driving for 10km on the road with poor road conditions, and touch the shock absorber shell by hand. If it is not hot enough, it means that there is no resistance inside the shock absorber and the shock absorber does not work. At this time, the proper lubricating oil can be added, and then the test can be carried out. If the shell is heated, it means that the internal oil of the shock absorber is insufficient, and sufficient oil shall be added, otherwise, it means that the shock absorber is invalid.
2. Press down the bumper firmly, and then release it. If the car jumps 2-3 times, the shock absorber works well.
3. When the car is running slowly and braking in emergency, if the car vibrates violently, it indicates that there is a problem with the shock absorber.
4. Remove the shock absorber to make it stand upright, clamp the lower connecting ring on the vise, and pull and press the shock absorber several times. At this time, there should be stable resistance. The resistance to pull up should be greater than that to press down. If the resistance is not stable or there is no resistance, it may be the lack of oil inside the shock absorber or the damage of valve parts. Repair or replace the parts.
   After the problem or failure of the shock absorber is determined, check whether the shock absorber leaks oil or has traces of old oil leakage.
If the shock absorber is free of oil leakage, check the bushing for damage, desoldering, fracture or falling off. If the above inspection is normal, further disassemble the shock absorber, check whether the fit clearance between the piston and the cylinder is too large, whether the cylinder is strained, whether the valve seal is good, whether the valve disc and the valve seat fit tightly, and whether the extension spring of the shock absorber is too soft or broken. According to the inspection of the connecting pin, connecting rod, connecting hole, rubber and conditions of the shock absorber, repair or replace the parts Repair.
  In addition, the vibration damper will produce noise in actual use, which is mainly caused by the collision between the vibration damper and leaf spring, frame or shaft, damage or falling off of the rubber pad, deformation of the dust-proof cylinder of the vibration damper, insufficient oil, etc. the cause shall be found out and repaired.
  After the shock absorber is inspected and repaired, the working performance test shall be carried out on a special test bench. When the resistance frequency is 100 ± 1mm, the resistance of its extension stroke and compression stroke shall meet the requirements, indicating that the shock absorber is basically normal.

Development prospect editor
   It is a trend of globalization for auto parts manufacturers to break away from vehicle enterprises and form specialized parts groups. Almost all of the world-famous automobile and parts enterprises have established joint ventures or wholly-owned enterprises in China, and more than 1000 technology joint ventures have been introduced. A number of domestic automobile and parts enterprises with high technology content, good efficiency and large scale have gradually grown up. With the implementation of the strategy of "global purchase" of parts and components in the international automobile industry and the implementation of localization strategy by international multinational automobile enterprises, there will be a huge gap in the domestic market of parts and components. By 2010, China's domestic output value of auto parts will reach about 700 billion yuan. The prospect of production is broad, and the space for appreciation is huge.

 

 

Pub Time : 2020-04-03 11:21:52 >> News list
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